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The Impact of COVID-19 on Supply Chain Management

Epidemiology of Peripheral Vascular Disease The Long Life Family Study(LLFS)…..

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Challenges Facing the Fight Against Fraud and Corruption Practices in the Cameroonian Public Sector

SSRN Electronic Journal, 2015

It has been documented that fraud and corruption are gargantuan twin brothers that have limited the growth and infrastructure of many nations and led many firms to the road of bankruptcy. Fraud is rarely seen but the symptoms of fraud are usually observed. Corruption, the twin brother of fraud is the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit and includes; bribes, cronyism and nepotism, political donations, kickbacks and artificial pricing and fraud of all kinds.
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Communauté Economique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale (CEMAC)

International Year Book and Statesmen's Who's Who

This study analyzed the link between economic growth and income inequality in Central African countries by integrating the geographic dimension (the contribution of the fixed exchange rate to the dynamics of economic growth and income inequality).
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Fraud and Corruption Practices in Public Sector: The Cameroon Experience

Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 2015

Fraud and corruption are gargantuan twin brothers that have limited the growth and infrastructure of many nations and led many firms to the road of bankruptcy. Fraud is rarely seen but the symptoms of fraud are usually observed. Corruption the twin brother of fraud is the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit and includes; bribes, cronyism and nepotism, political donations, kickbacks and artificial pricing and fraud of all kinds
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Economic Implications of COVID-19 and Key Lessons for Policymakers

Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 2015

The economic and health implications of COVID-19 are broad-based on the Cameroonian economy, with the service sector likely to see the most adverse effects. Negative global spillovers from falling industrial and manufacturing activity in China will cause a retrenchment in exports due to falling external demand. Meanwhile, a weaker currency has exacerbated inflationary pressures, which suggest a more marked impact from COVID-19 in the near term. This paper employs a qualitative and data-centric approach to map the economic implications of COVID-19 on Cameroon’s economy with policy recommendations designed to attenuate the short-term negative spillovers and support a transition away from fossil fuels via targeted fiscal measures such as wage subsidies and a sector-specific approach to digitization.

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Pr Kelly Mua kingsley Financial Literacy and wealth creation

Financial literacy is the ability to understand how money works: how someone makes, manages and invests it, and also expends it. In other words “the ability to use knowledge and skills to manage financial resources effectively for a lifetime of financial well-being.”
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Decentralisation and forest revenue

Pr Kelly Mua Kingsly, 2020

Decentralization or decentralization (see spelling differences) is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group. Concepts of decentralization are applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science, law and public administration, economics, money and technology. According to Wikipedia. This process in public administration or in the management of state affairs, intents to bring the people closest to the local authorities as they actively participate in the management of their affairs.
The use of resources generated by the decentralized communities are varied and numerous, in line with the government structure in place, these resources are either managed and used solely by the community or partially. The partial use of the revenue is to ensure equitable distribution of state or federal resources because some regions may not be as wealthy like others.

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China sneezes and the world catches a cold

Professor kelly Mua Kingsly, 2020

When China sneezes the world catches a cold is a statement that is true today more than ever before. The outbreak of the COVID-19 has had far reaching consequences around the world as almost every component of society is greatly affected in one way or the other .The impact transcends through culture, politics, history, economic, health and even the distortion of the historical landscape. If anyone doubted the super power position of China, COVID-19 has given us the opportunity to rethink. Economically, the ban of flights and limited movements in and out of the country has impaired the positive evolution of the financial markets naturally tilting the growth curve towards continues low. Food supplies, medication, importation and most especially commodity prices are on their all-time low. On the health side with extraverted  African economies is meting towards short falls , at the central African sub region, rating institutions are projecting a 4.1% drop in consumer goods as import is greatly affected . The United Nations said it now estimates Africa’s GDP rate will fall from 3.2 percent to 1.8 percent this year. In order for Africa to meet its global targets under the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals, economists say Africa must grow at a minimum of 8 percent.
The novel COVID-19 has infected more than 94,800 people in at least 77 countries (see chart), bringing global manufacturing supply chains to a grinding halt and causing a slowdown in key service sectors such as tourism, transport, and recreation. While the virus will cause exports from Cameroon to China and Italy to fall, policymakers must see the negative implications of the virus as a trigger to incentivise higher value-added products such as components for computers and solar panels, consumer products such as cornflakes, packaged salmon, potatoes and cornflower, which are all appropriate for an increasingly climate-centric global consumer.

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Reponse agressive des Banques Centrales COVID 1920200330 72026 mpvh66

Les banques centrales ont abaissé leurs taux d’intérêt à leurs plus bas historiques pour tenter de réduire l’impact négatif de COVID-19, tandis que des injections de liquidités sans précédent ont été utilisées pour réduire les contraintes de financement et les frictions sur le marché financier. La politique monétaire atténuera les retombées économiques et financières du virus, les décideurs politiques devraient souligner la nécessité de mesures fiscales ciblées pour compléter la politique monétaire accommodante et la liquidité de la banque centrale. Celles-ci devraient aboutir à des transferts fiscaux, des subventions salariales et une réduction significative des cotisations de sécurité sociale pour les ménages. Néanmoins, les banques centrales devraient commencer à endiguer les vulnérabilités structurelles des marchés financiers et veiller à ce que les injections de liquidités soient une mesure à court terme conçue pour améliorer les transmissions de la politique monétaire plutôt que de créer une dépendance aux marchés financiers, comme cela a été le cas depuis la crise financière. Le Coronavirus ou COVID-19 a fait ralentir l’économie mondiale, les rendements gouvernementaux ont chuté et les contraintes de liquidité se sont accrues sur les marchés financiers des économies avancées. Avant cela, les États-Unis et la Chine étaient enfermés dans une rivalité géopolitique, économique et technologique qui a provoqué un ralentissement cyclique synchronisé alors que les entreprises reportaient les décisions d’investissement. Cette tendance à ralentir les investissements en capital dans des secteurs productifs tels que les technologies vertes et les énergies renouvelables a vu la productivité décliner; et les malheurs mondiaux ont été aggravés par le Brexit dans un contexte de croissance atone du marché unique. Après la signature de la première phase de l’accord commercial et de l’USMCA, COVID-19 a commencé à se répandre à Wuhan, la capitale de la province du Hubei. Depuis lors, le virus s’est propagé en Italie, en Amérique du Nord et en Afrique. Dans l’intervalle, les chaînes d’approvisionnement mondiales de la fabrication de cosmétiques, du secteur automobile, des produits de consommation et industriels sont au point mort, le sentiment des entreprises et des consommateurs a chuté dans certaines économies avancées et le secteur des services, qui englobe le tourisme, les transports et les restaurants, a été affecté par le virus. Les banques centrales peuvent évaluer l’impact du virus Corona de deux points de vue; 1) À moyen terme, le virus augmentera le stress financier des entreprises et du secteur financier, mais les petites et moyennes entreprises sont les plus touchées car elles ont tendance à s’appuyer sur les découverts, les mécanismes de financement ou d’autres formes de financement variable qui ont un impact significatif sur leurs coûts d’exploitation ou frais généraux. Pour les sociétés cotées, les contraintes de financement dépendent de l’étendue des liens avec la chaîne d’approvisionnement en Chine, en Europe et en Amérique du Nord. Ces entreprises peuvent être exposées à la Chine pour des composants tels que la pomme ou à la demande d’Adidas et de Nike. Prenons l’exemple de l’Afrique du Sud, avec un ratio dette / PIB de 66%, sa courbe de rendement suggère une prime de risque car ses perspectives de Fitch sont actuellement négatives avec une note de crédit BB +. En tant que tel, les entreprises nationales sans recours aux marchés internationaux de la dette verront leurs sources de financement se tarir si le pays n’adopte pas les approches chinoises pour endiguer le virus. Ce dernier a actuellement traité 70% des cas selon le PIB. En outre, les banques centrales doivent assouplir les contraintes de financement via des injections de liquidités via des achats d’obligations étendus, des taux d’intérêt plus bas, les facilités de mise en pension visant à réduire les frictions financières.

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Coronavirus and carbon transition for developing economies

Synopsis: The corona virus, (Covid-19) has spread to several continents and Italy has in recent days become Europe’s worst-affected country. Whilst the humanitarian costs leaves little to desire, the economic impact has halted manufacturing supply chains across china and the world, caused imports of crude oil to fall by 25% , global economic activity to slow and oil prices to hit 31-$33/bl. In the meantime, central banks have cut interest rates in an attempt to reduce the adverse effects of a slowing global economy but commodity exporters such as Nigeria, South Africa and Cameroon will likely bear the brunt of weaker demand. Rather than stimulate domestic economies via interest rate cuts, central banks should emphasise the need for targeted fiscal reforms that prioritise higher value-added products such as green technologies, consumer and non-consumer products, intermediate products and components for industrial machinery. Such an approach will increase the number of people employed in formal sectors, reduce the impact of the virus on long-term economic growth whilst improving the pass-through from monetary policy to economic activity and inflation.

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Reponse agressive des Banques Centrales COVID

Les banques centrales ont abaissé leurs taux d’intérêt à leurs plus bas historiques pour tenter de réduire l’impact négatif de COVID-19, tandis que des injections de liquidités sans précédent ont été utilisées pour réduire les contraintes de financement et les frictions sur le marché financier. La politique monétaire atténuera les retombées économiques et financières du virus, les décideurs politiques devraient souligner la nécessité de mesures fiscales ciblées pour compléter la politique monétaire accommodante et la liquidité de la banque centrale. Celles-ci devraient aboutir à des transferts fiscaux, des subventions salariales et une réduction significative des cotisations de sécurité sociale pour les ménages. Néanmoins, les banques centrales devraient commencer à endiguer les vulnérabilités structurelles des marchés financiers et veiller à ce que les injections de liquidités soient une mesure à court terme conçue pour améliorer les transmissions de la politique monétaire plutôt que de créer une dépendance aux marchés financiers, comme cela a été le cas depuis la crise financière. Le Coronavirus ou COVID-19 a fait ralentir l’économie mondiale, les rendements gouvernementaux ont chuté et les contraintes de liquidité se sont accrues sur les marchés financiers des économies avancées. Avant cela, les États-Unis et la Chine étaient enfermés dans une rivalité géopolitique, économique et technologique qui a provoqué un ralentissement cyclique synchronisé alors que les entreprises reportaient les décisions d’investissement. Cette tendance à ralentir les investissements en capital dans des secteurs productifs tels que les technologies vertes et les énergies renouvelables a vu la productivité décliner; et les malheurs mondiaux ont été aggravés par le Brexit dans un contexte de croissance atone du marché unique. Après la signature de la première phase de l’accord commercial et de l’USMCA, COVID-19 a commencé à se répandre à Wuhan, la capitale de la province du Hubei. Depuis lors, le virus s’est propagé en Italie, en Amérique du Nord et en Afrique. Dans l’intervalle, les chaînes d’approvisionnement mondiales de la fabrication de cosmétiques, du secteur automobile, des produits de consommation et industriels sont au point mort, le sentiment des entreprises et des consommateurs a chuté dans certaines économies avancées et le secteur des services, qui englobe le tourisme, les transports et les restaurants, a été affecté par le virus. Les banques centrales peuvent évaluer l’impact du virus Corona de deux points de vue; 1) À moyen terme, le virus augmentera le stress financier des entreprises et du secteur financier, mais les petites et moyennes entreprises sont les plus touchées car elles ont tendance à s’appuyer sur les découverts, les mécanismes de financement ou d’autres formes de financement variable qui ont un impact significatif sur leurs coûts d’exploitation ou frais généraux. Pour les sociétés cotées, les contraintes de financement dépendent de l’étendue des liens avec la chaîne d’approvisionnement en Chine, en Europe et en Amérique du Nord. Ces entreprises peuvent être exposées à la Chine pour des composants tels que la pomme ou à la demande d’Adidas et de Nike. Prenons l’exemple de l’Afrique du Sud, avec un ratio dette / PIB de 66%, sa courbe de rendement suggère une prime de risque car ses perspectives de Fitch sont actuellement négatives avec une note de crédit BB +. En tant que tel, les entreprises nationales sans recours aux marchés internationaux de la dette verront leurs sources de financement se tarir si le pays n’adopte pas les approches chinoises pour endiguer le virus. Ce dernier a actuellement traité 70% des cas selon le PIB. En outre, les banques centrales doivent assouplir les contraintes de financement via des injections de liquidités via des achats d’obligations étendus, des taux d’intérêt plus bas, les facilités de mise en pension visant à réduire les frictions financières.

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Financial stability and sovereign risk - An empirical analysis of the CEMAC region

Financial stability and sovereign risk: An empirical analysis of the CEMAC region, 2020

Abstract: Investments by the private and public sector have formed the basis for economic growth in developing economies. The creation of goods and services for consumption hinge on the ability of market actors to lend from financial institutions. The process of credit creation is, therefore, central to economic activity, output, employment, productivity and wage growth. Nevertheless, it is not clear that crowding out of investment occurs via lending to state-entities, whose ability to repay credit is contingent on oil prices and domestic economic activity. This paper finds that the impact of the public sector on per capita GDP is weaker (1.6%), while the impact of private credit is significantly larger at (2.6%). Greater linkages between commercial banks and the public sector increase financial stability risks as weaker oil prices affect the ability of the public sector to repay its loans to Cameroon’s commercial banks. In other to bolster financial stability, commercial banks should make targeted investments in high-growth and scalable sectors that will reduce the uncertainty on their profits stemming from uncertain oil prices and late repayments by state-owned entities. Not only will a climate-centric and diversified portfolio insulate bank profits over the medium-long run, but they will also reduce the exposure of their asset and liquidity positions to uncertain commodity prices.

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COMMUNAUTÉ ÉCONOMIQUE ET MONÉTAIRE DE L'AFRIQUE CENTRALE

La pandémie du coronavirus (COVID-19), qui s’est déclenchée en Chine en fin 2019 et s’est propagée dans plusieurs pays dans le monde, n’a pas épargné les pays de la CEMAC. Au 22 mars 2020, tous les six pays de la sous-région sont affectés par cette crise, avec au total 79 cas de contamination actifs identifiés, un cas décès et deux guérisons.
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FORENSIC SCIENCE (1)

Forensic science , 2020

The term forensic science involves forensic (or forensis, in Latin), which means a public discussion or debate. In a more modern context, however, forensic applies to courts or the judicial system. Combine that with science, and forensic science means applying scientific methods and processes to solving crimes.
From the 16th century, when medical practitioners began using forensic science to writings in the late 18th century that revealed the first evidence of modern pathology, to the formation of the first school of forensic science in 1909; the development of forensic science has been used to uncover mysteries, solve crimes, and convict or exonerate suspects of crime for hundreds of years.
The extraordinary scientific innovations and advancements in forensic science have allowed it to become a highly developed science that involves a number of disciplines and thousands of forensic scientists specializing in everything from DNA and botany to dentistry and toolmarks.

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Poster A3

Many emerging markets,low-income countries require a major step increase in infrastructure investments to alleviate growth constrains,respond to urbanization pressure,and meet their crucial goals for investment growth,development and sustainability.
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Tresor public

La criminalité financière au Cameroun comme dans plusieurs pays est constituée de plusieurs types d’infractions ayant en commun le fait qu’elles portent atteinte à la vie économique du pays. Pour y faire face, les différents gouvernements ont dû adopter un système de lutte propre aux réalités nationales, tenant en compte les lapalissades nationales.
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Potentials for job creation and new markets through the industry of Agribusiness

Potentials for job creation and new markets through the industry of Agribusiness

After years of neglect, agriculture is once again seizing the attention of African governments, business leaders, communities, and development donors, as a powerful driver of the continent’s relentless growth. Some estimated that Africa’s population will be reaching 2 billion in 2020, with resultant consequences for food security, growing urbanization, and youth unemployment. Therefore, the majority of African countries urgently need to refocus their future agricultural growth strategies.
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SSRN-id3247698 (1)

Challenges Facing the Fight Against Fraud and Corruption Practices in the Cameroonian Public Sector

It has been documented that fraud and corruption are gargantuan twin brothers that have limited the growth and infrastructure of many nations and led many firms to the road of bankruptcy. Fraud is rarely seen but the symptoms of fraud are usually observed. Corruption, the twin brother of fraud is the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit and includes; bribes, cronyism and nepotism, political donations, kickbacks and artificial pricing and fraud of all kinds. Corruption in Cameroon has been a significant

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SSRN-id3247698 (1)

Challenges Facing the Fight Against Fraud and Corruption Practices in the Cameroonian Public Sector

It has been documented that fraud and corruption are gargantuan twin brothers that have limited the growth and infrastructure of many nations and led many firms to the road of bankruptcy. Fraud is rarely seen but the symptoms of fraud are usually observed. Corruption, the twin brother of fraud is the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit and includes; bribes, cronyism and nepotism, political donations, kickbacks and artificial pricing and fraud of all kinds. Corruption in Cameroon has been a significant

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A Scientific Approach to Fighting Money Laundry: Forensic Accounts INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF FORENSIC ACCOUNTING

The urban dictionary (online) defines “magic bullet” as a term used to describe a universal solution a person uses for any problem they encounter” while the Merriam-Webster dictionary describes it as “something providing an effective solution to a difficult or previously unsolvable problem”. Furthermore, it can be described as the perfect drug to cure an ailment with no hazard of side effects. The term was first used in this manner by the German scientist, Paul Ehrlich to describe antibody and, later, the drug Salvarsan that he created to treat syphilis. In general, it refers to a magic answer to any vexing problem. The use of forensic science techniques has traditionally been concentrated on more serious crimes such as rape and homicide. Increasingly, however, forensic techniques are being used routinely to aid the investigation of volume crimes such as money laundry, financial crimes, white collar crimes, burglary and vehicle crime. This paper examines Forensic science techniques in developing Forensic accounts as it is. The paper explains the meaning, the purpose, the uses, the importance and the challenges of forensic accounting. The paper further enumerates skills needed for forensic accountants as well as factors impacting the growth of the demand of forensic accounting. Finally, the paper develops an overview of the contribution of forensic science to criminal investigations.
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Kelly Mua Kingsly PHD Public Policy and Business management Harvard Kennedy school of Government MC/MPA Candidate Religion as a tool for Economic/Political Transformation

Early economists and other researchers have paid little attention to any link between religion and economic development; rather it is seen as something personal between man and his God. Religion, as a system of faith is based on belief in the existence of a particular God or gods, to some extent, influences or contributes in developing and coordinating the expression of the capacities latent in human nature for the progress of the society. Religion’s role in the determination of economic growth from central perspective is that religion affects economic outcomes mainly by fostering religious beliefs that influence individual traits such as honesty, work ethic, thrift, and openness to strangers. The paper examines the role of religion in transforming village-style and centralized government in Africa societies to democracy system of government. It also reviewed the economic system in Africa prior to colonial/missionaries arrival in Africa. From various accounts, religion has contributed immensely to the economic development of the country through investment in different sectors of the economy like real estate, capital market, shopping complex, schools and banks (including Islamic banks).

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Fraud and Corruption Practices in Public Sector: The Cameroon Experience

Fraud and corruption are gargantuan twin brothers that have limited the growth and infrastructure of many nations and led many firms to the road of bankruptcy. Fraud is rarely seen but the symptoms of fraud are usually observed. Corruption the twin brother of fraud is the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit and includes; bribes, cronyism and nepotism, political donations, kickbacks and artificial pricing and fraud of all kinds. Corruption in Cameroon has been a significant problem for many years, inhibiting investment opportunities. The paper therefore adopts the agency theory to examine the level of fraud and corruption practices in doing business in Cameroon and evaluate the impact of government anti-corruption policies in fighting the menace of fraud and corruption practices. The study employed survey research method in obtaining data. Findings in this study revealed that virtually all the segment of the public sector are highly corrupt and Police, Custom and Tax administration are the most corrupt institution in Cameroon. Although, almost all the anti-corruption initiatives are ranked ineffective, only the CHOC-Cameroon programme (Change Habits, Oppose Corruption) are considered to be effective. This could be as a result of insincerity and lack of political will by the government to fight fraud and corruption in the system.

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Perspectives of Infrastructure Development in Fragile Economies : Minding the gap between Infrastructure and Development

Perspectives of infrastructure development in emerging countries

Many emerging markets and most low-income countries require a major step increase in infrastructure investment to alleviate growth constraints, respond to urbanization pressures and meet their crucial goals for inclusive growth, development, and sustainability. There is a well-documented infrastructure deficit in many developing and developed countries, which is hampering growth prospects.
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Moving from Strategy to Corporate Communication

Moving from Strategy to Corporate Communication

The concept of strategy has evolved substantially in the past thirty years. Organisations have learned to analyze their immediate competitive environment, define their current position, develop competitive and corporate advantages, and understand weaknesses and threats to sustaining advantage in the face of challenging threats.
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Moving From Economic Growth to Transformation through Energy and Power

Moving From Economic Growth to Transformation through Energy and Power

Electricity is a major source of energy in all sectors of an economy, that is, the military, home, industrial, education, commerce and agricultural sectors in a given country. The role of power/energy in economic transformation cannot be over-emphasized. Centuries before the discovery of electric light, kingdoms and empires depend on a source of energy/power to power great establishment and businesses.
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Leadership and development

A review of the leadership literature provides one with a plethora of definitions and theories, all of which are defined or propounded to suit the perception of the authors who suggested them, or as descriptions of the leadership landscape that existed during certain eras or periods of human life. This dynamism or unsettling nature of discourses on the concept of leadership may be attributed to the dynamic nature of the concept itself.
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Le tresor public et la lutte contre la criminalite financiere

Le trésor public et la lutte contre la criminalité financière Résumé La criminalité financière au Cameroun comme dans plusieurs pays est constituée de plusieurs types d’infractions ayant en commun le fait qu’elles portent atteinte à la vie économique du pays. Pour y faire face, les différents gouvernements ont dû adopter un système de lutte propre aux réalités nationales, tenant en compte les lapalissades nationales. La lutte contre la criminalité financière s’appuie sur une multitude de textes législatifs et réglementaires, mais aussi sur des organes précis. De plus, la particularité du système camerounais de lutte contre la criminalité financière est que, pour certaines infractions commises, l’influence du cadre juridique international influence le traitement des infractions. Cet article, aborde les différents politiques de lutte contre la criminalité financière au Cameroun. La première partie aborde les textes nationaux et internationaux contre ce fléau. La deuxième partie analyse le rôle des organismes indépendants et les organes judiciaires traditionnels, sans toutefois oublier le role d’Interpol.. Mots clés : Corruption, fraude, criminalité financière, Cameroun. INTRODUCTION Les questions de gouvernance au sein des Administrations publiques nationales et internationales du monde entier constituent des sujets de grand intérêt pour l’opinion publique, en raison notamment de ce que ces administrations ont la responsabilité de la gestion d’un patrimoine commun et l’obligation de déférer aux principes de transparence et de reddition de compte qui caractérisent les Etats modernes. Il convient d’ailleurs d’observer que ces questions de gouvernance qui ne sont pas propres au secteur public, existent bel et bien dans le secteur privé et parfois de façon plus accentuées, sans pour autant emporter le même écho au sein de la société. (Siewe et Baban, 2019:205) La corruption est l’un des principaux fléaux qui entrave le développement harmonieux de la société, en profitant à une minorité au détriment de la grande et large majorité sociétale. Au Cameroun, la corruption est réprimée par la loi N° 2016 /007 du 12 juillet 2016 portant code pénal. La convention des Nations Unies contre la corruption du 31 octobre 2003, dite convention de Merida, ratifiée par le Cameroun le 18 mai 2004, définie la corruption comme : soustraction, détournement ou usage illicite de bien par un agent public ; trafic d’influence ; abus de fonction ; enrichissement illicite ; blanchissement du produit du crime ; recel ; entrave au bon fonctionnement de la justice et l’inobservation des règles des marchés publics. Le rapport de la Commission nationale anti-corruption du Cameroun du 28 décembre 2018 épingle le Ministère en charge des Marchés publics comme l’administration la plus corrompue. Des mesures institutionnelles multiformes ont été prises par les autorités camerounaises pour lutter contre ce fléau, mais celui-ci continue de se répandre en se complexifiant, causant d’énormes préjudices à la société, en général et aux couches les plus vulnérables, en particulier. (Siewe et Baban, 2019:205) Les infractions financières portent atteinte à la fortune publique du Cameroun, et le pays a adopté plusieurs textes nationaux en matière de lutte contre la criminalité financière. Cependant, face à l’impact des infractions financières sur la société internationale, il a fallu
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International Public Sector Accounting System

International Public Sector Accounting System

The global wind of economic integration has now reached the doorstep of accounting profession with intense pressure on nations state to apply unified accounting Standards in government undertakings. This effort could be seen as a centaury reform to the profession.
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Kelly Mua Kingsley Ph.D./MBA, MPA, CFI, CFI

Forensic Investigation is trending. It is emerging and fast becoming a veritable tool in financial crimes curtailment and/or eradication. This mini project work proposes to examine the concept of Forensic Investigation as an emerging phenomenon particularly as it affects developing nation.
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Forensics is not a Magic Bullet: Understanding the nature of Forensic Science Public Finance specialist, Operations Expert, FCFIP, CFPA, CFA General Directorate of Treasury, Monetary and Finance Cooperation Ministry of Finance

Forensic Science is an end-to-end process beginning at the scene and finishing in court. There are many opportunities for quality failures along the way. To limit the focus to the validity and the quality of the actual tests does not support the contribution of forensic science to the criminal justice system and risks compromising it. A particularly critical aspect of the process is the interpretation of the significance of the test findings in the context of the case and the faulty methodology/analytical tools used in arriving at a conclusion which is subject to human errors and technological changes. In this vein, standards that develop Forensic Experts may not be adequate to ensure proper evaluation of expert opinion as a safeguard to ensuring that the opinions are balanced, logical and transparent.
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IPSAS

The global wind of economic integration has now reached the doorstep of accounting profession with intense pressure on nations state to apply unified accounting Standards in government undertakings. This effort could be seen as a centaury reform to the profession. The reform agenda was perceived as way forward towards harmonizing public sector with private sector liked system and principle of financial reporting, which for long experts had been advocating on the believed that both sectors should operate at the same level of efficiency.
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Professor. Kelly Mua Kingsley. Expert in Forensic Accounts Director for Finance Operations of the State Designated Representative of Cameroon-CONSUMAF Project Fund Manager-MINE PAT-Cameroon

Africa has been changing fast over the past fifteen to twenty years. Both the growth performances and the international image of the continent went through surprising U-turns, from widespread stagnation and pessimism to unprecedented progress and new prospects. The turnaround of economic performances began as early as the mid-1990s and led to a number of sub-Saharan countries achieving record growth rates for the better part of the following decade. In spite of the profound changes underway in sub-Saharan Africa, social, political and economic continuities were also bound to affect and challenge the region’s trajectory.
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Tresor public

La criminalité financière au Cameroun comme dans plusieurs pays est constituée de plusieurs types d’infractions ayant en commun le fait qu’elles portent atteinte à la vie économique du pays. Pour y faire face, les différents gouvernements ont dû adopter un système de lutte propre aux réalités nationales, tenant en compte les lapalissades nationales. La lutte contre la criminalité financière s’appuie sur une multitude de textes législatifs et réglementaires, mais aussi sur des organes précis.
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The incorporation of Corporate Social Responsibility into Public-Private Partnerships for Sustainable Development By: Prof Kelly Mua Kingsley

Since the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), public-private partnerships have become even more prominent. In simple terms, the Agenda is a plan of action for prosperity that seeks to strengthen universal peace and freedom by eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions. Further, the Agenda requests all stakeholders to act collaboratively in partnership for sustainable development. UN agenda is a plan of action for ‘people, planet, and prosperity.’
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Leadership

A review of the leadership literature provides one with a plethora of definitions and theories, all of which are defined or propounded to suit the perception of the authors who suggested them, or as descriptions of the leadership landscape that existed during certain eras or periods of human life. This dynamism or unsettling nature of discourses on the concept of leadership may be attributed to the dynamic nature of the concept itself.
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Forensic accounting in market expansion: Google and the Chinese market

The current reflection is about a new roadmap that the American giant, Google, Inc must follow to reenter successfully the Chinese market by using tools like forensic accounting, audit techniques and other relevant initiatives related to better transparency of business transactions. In order to achieve this, the piece develops the history between Google Inc, and China, what went wrong, and other issues related to the breakdown.
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Dr. Kelly Mua Kingsley. Expert in Forensic Accounts Director for Finance Operations of the State Designated Representative of Cameroon-CONSUMAF Project Fund Manager-MINE PAT-Cameroon

Africa has been changing fast over the past fifteen to twenty years. Both the growth performances and the international image of the continent went through surprising U-turns, from widespread stagnation and pessimism to unprecedented progress and new prospects. The turnaround of economic performances began as early as the mid-1990s and led to a number of sub-Saharan countries achieving record growth rates for the better part of the following decade. In spite of the profound changes underway in sub-Saharan Africa, social, political and economic continuities were also bound to affect and challenge the region’s trajectory.
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Kelly Mua Kingsley Ph.D./MBA, MPA, CFI, CFI

Forensic Investigation is trending. It is emerging and fast becoming a veritable tool in financial crimes curtailment and/or eradication. This mini project work proposes to examine the concept of Forensic Investigation as an emerging phenomenon particularly as it affects developing nation.
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The Douala Stock Exchange (DSX) in Cameroon and its Discontents

Ndedi (2009) defines financial market as a market for the exchange of capital and credit, including the money markets and the capital markets. The author further asserts that the financial market is a place (physical or virtual) where people trade financial securities, commodities, and other fungible items of value at low transaction costs and at prices that reflect local supply and demand. Securities include stocks and bonds, and commodities include precious metals or agricultural goods.
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COMBATING BOKO HARAM TERRORISM FINANCING: CASE OF NIGERIA

COMBATING BOKO HARAM TERRORISM FINANCING: CASE OF NIGERIA

Recent terrorists activities in Lake Chad basin (comprises of countries such as Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon) have adversely affected the socio political and economic situation in the region. study involves assessing the historical background and and investigating the sources of funding Boko Haram terrorist group and effect on economic activities. The research approach to this study entails a literature review that is carried out to identify the knowledge gap in previous studies, to obtain background information to the research topic, to identify tested methods, techniques and research designs for uncovering the answer to the research questions, as well as to obtain an understanding o bearing on the study. Combination of historical research design and survey research technique was used in this study. to anal group is as a result of availability of several sources of funds to finance its activities, if these sources are cut off or contained, the menace will drastically red terrorism financing and its availability to the Boko Haram terrorist group activities have effect on socio political/ economic development in the region. The authors are of opinion that regional government and proferring solution to t Copyright © 2015 Kelly Mua kingsly et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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ECONOMIC PROSPERITY THROUGH ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT20190807 46613 k1w4tl

ECONOMIC PROSPERITY THROUGH ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The integration vision for an African Economic Community through five geographic regions was recommended by the Abuja Treaty (1991). To streamline the existing multiple blocs in these regions, the African Union identified eight Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in its rationalization drive. The integration vision seeks to attain collective autonomy and contribute to raising the living standards of the population through the expansion of African markets and increased trade between Africa and the world.
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Challenges Facing the Fight Against Fraud and Corruption Practices in the Cameroonian Public Sector

Challenges Facing the Fight Against Fraud and Corruption Practices

It has been documented that fraud and corruption are gargantuan twin brothers that have limited the growth and infrastructure of many nations and led many firms to the road of bankruptcy. Fraud is rarely seen but the symptoms of fraud are usually observed. Corruption, the twin brother of fraud is the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit and includes; bribes, cronyism and nepotism, political donations, kickbacks and artificial pricing and fraud of all kinds. Corruption in Cameroon has been a significant

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The incorporation of Corporate Social Responsibility into Public-Private Partnerships for Sustainable Development By: Prof Kelly Mua Kingsley

CSR-PPP, 2019

Since the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the SustainableDevelopment Goals (SDGs), public-private partnerships have become even more prominent. In simple terms, the Agenda is a plan of action for prosperity that seeks to strengthen universal peace and freedom by eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions. Further, the Agenda requests all stakeholders to act collaboratively in partnership for sustainable development. UN agenda is a plan of action for ‘people, planet, and prosperity.’ The 17 Goals cover all crucial policy areas to secure a sustainable future, including education, health, economic development, social protection, environmental protection, and natural resources governance. The 17 goals are operational in 169 targets which need to be reached by 2030 or earlier. The SDGs build on the Millennium Development Goals and aim to complete what these Millennium Development Goals did not achieve. The main difference between the Millennium Development Goals implemented from 2000 till 2015 and the Sustainable Development Goals launched in 2015 is that the former were mainly targeted to governments while the latter attempts to target many different stakeholders including the private sector. Therefore, a shift in approach between the Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals is the recognition that policy objectives are best achieved by involving and integrating private actors in the policy process.

It must be recognized that Various actors have used Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) for sustainable development as a mechanism of operation during the last three decades. It is viewed as a shift in the public management way of doing business. Even if there are many types of PPP as depicted in the below figure 1, the above move is explained by the shift from ‘public management’ to ‘public governance,’ signaling that governments are no longer the only providers of public policy but increasingly engage private actors. (Rosenau, 1995:13)

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Agribusiness and Economic transformation

Agribusiness and economic transformation, 2019

Third generation agriculture is at the center of economic transformation.The respository of the next level growth is in this domain and we hope to take this to the next level as we continously build on alternative sources to finance for growth and development . The fall in commodity prices in the world market accounts for diversification of sources of finance to state budget.
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Rethinking the building blocks of ERM

Rethinking the building blocks of ERM, 2019

Innovativeness risk management (ERM) in business includes the methods and processes used by organizations to manage risks and seize opportunities related to the achievement of their objectives. This paper argues, that Enterprise risk management being the process of aligning competitive strategy with the mechanisms that identify, aggregate, mitigate, avoid and transfer risk, is a goal of reducing losses while seizing opportunities in the marketplace. It is a disciplined approach to better manage the effects of uncertainty of an organization’s capital and earnings. In theory, according to the authors, ERM guides managers as they coordinate the multitude of tasks in order to identify the potential risks encountered by individual employees, business units, geographic divisions and corporate leadership. The resulting portfolio of risk sets the stage for planning the avoidance, transfer and mitigation of potential risks so the uncertainty of achieving the expected outcome is reduced. Furthermore, the paper highlights that with ERM, effectiveness is predicated on a process orientation, proper tools and high-quality information from operating units and individuals. In this regard, the letter ‘E’ in the acronym ERM could just as easily stand for employee. Therefore, the importance of employee is important in ethics and legal compliance, where successful management depends as much on how leadership and culture influences employee behavior as on quantifiable controls and procedures. The above point will ground the first part of the paper. The authors argued that the ethical health of an organization culture has gained importance due to high-profile business failures where material weakness was found in the control environment. This issue will be addressed in the second part of the paper. The details pertaining control environments with strong cultures of compliance are known to be conducive to the minimization of risk (a positive control environment), while those with a culture of non-compliance do little to reduce risk (a negative control environment). This paper explained in this same second part that an integral component of ERM is to holistically manage ethics and compliance risk to help shape and foster a strong ethical corporate culture. This paper examines in the third part the five integrated process steps in building a lawful ethical culture, define, prevent, detect, respond and evaluate, providing practical suggestions and real-world examples. The paper concludes by discussing the bottom-line benefits of ethics and compliance management and how to market these benefits inside the organization in order to create support for ethics and compliance initiatives. Key words: Enterprise Risk Management, ethics, compliance, organization.
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TERRORIOSM Financing

The international community is concerned with the growing incidence of organized crime, corruption, and terrorism and the debilitating effect these problems have on peace, security and development. A successful strategy to address these international threats necessarily involves measures to address money laundering and the financing of terrorism (ML/FT).
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Rethinking the building blocks of ERM

Rethinking the building block of ERM, 2019

Innovativeness risk management (ERM) in business includes the methods and processes used by organizations to manage risks and seize opportunities related to the achievement of their objectives. This paper argues, that Enterprise risk management being the process of aligning competitive strategy with the mechanisms that identify, aggregate, mitigate, avoid and transfer risk, is a goal of reducing losses while seizing opportunities in the marketplace. It is a disciplined approach to better manage the effects of uncertainty of an organization’s capital and earnings. In theory, according to the authors, ERM guides managers as they coordinate the multitude of tasks in order to identify the potential risks encountered by individual employees, business units, geographic divisions and corporate leadership. The resulting portfolio of risk sets the stage for planning the avoidance, transfer and mitigation of potential risks so the uncertainty of achieving the expected outcome is reduced. Furthermore, the paper highlights that with ERM, effectiveness is predicated on a process orientation, proper tools and high-quality information from operating units and individuals. In this regard, the letter ‘E’ in the acronym ERM could just as easily stand for employee. Therefore, the importance of employee is important in ethics and legal compliance, where successful management depends as much on how leadership and culture influences employee behavior as on quantifiable controls and procedures. The above point will ground the first part of the paper. The authors argued that the ethical health of an organization culture has gained importance due to high-profile business failures where material weakness was found in the control environment. This issue will be addressed in the second part of the paper. The details pertaining control environments with strong cultures of compliance are known to be conducive to the minimization of risk (a positive control environment), while those with a culture of non-compliance do little to reduce risk (a negative control environment). This paper explained in this same second part that an integral component of ERM is to holistically manage ethics and compliance risk to help shape and foster a strong ethical corporate culture. This paper examines in the third part the five integrated process steps in building a lawful ethical culture, define, prevent, detect, respond and evaluate, providing practical suggestions and real-world examples. The paper concludes by discussing the bottom-line benefits of ethics and compliance management and how to market these benefits inside the organization in order to create support for ethics and compliance initiatives. Key words: Enterprise Risk Management, ethics, compliance, organization.
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Rethinking the building blocks of ERM

Rethinking the building block of ERM, 2019

Innovativeness risk management (ERM) in business includes the methods and processes used by organizations to manage risks and seize opportunities related to the achievement of their objectives. This paper argues, that Enterprise risk management being the process of aligning competitive strategy with the mechanisms that identify, aggregate, mitigate, avoid and transfer risk, is a goal of reducing losses while seizing opportunities in the marketplace. It is a disciplined approach to better manage the effects of uncertainty of an organization’s capital and earnings. In theory, according to the authors, ERM guides managers as they coordinate the multitude of tasks in order to identify the potential risks encountered by individual employees, business units, geographic divisions and corporate leadership. The resulting portfolio of risk sets the stage for planning the avoidance, transfer and mitigation of potential risks so the uncertainty of achieving the expected outcome is reduced. Furthermore, the paper highlights that with ERM, effectiveness is predicated on a process orientation, proper tools and high-quality information from operating units and individuals. In this regard, the letter ‘E’ in the acronym ERM could just as easily stand for employee. Therefore, the importance of employee is important in ethics and legal compliance, where successful management depends as much on how leadership and culture influences employee behavior as on quantifiable controls and procedures. The above point will ground the first part of the paper. The authors argued that the ethical health of an organization culture has gained importance due to high-profile business failures where material weakness was found in the control environment. This issue will be addressed in the second part of the paper. The details pertaining control environments with strong cultures of compliance are known to be conducive to the minimization of risk (a positive control environment), while those with a culture of non-compliance do little to reduce risk (a negative control environment). This paper explained in this same second part that an integral component of ERM is to holistically manage ethics and compliance risk to help shape and foster a strong ethical corporate culture. This paper examines in the third part the five integrated process steps in building a lawful ethical culture, define, prevent, detect, respond and evaluate, providing practical suggestions and real-world examples. The paper concludes by discussing the bottom-line benefits of ethics and compliance management and how to market these benefits inside the organization in order to create support for ethics and compliance initiatives. Key words: Enterprise Risk Management, ethics, compliance, organization.
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FROM STRATEGY TO CORPORATE COMMUNICATION

Leading Policy through Corporate communication, 2019

The concept of strategy has evolved substantially in the past thirty years. Organizations have learned to analyze their immediate competitive environment, define their current position, develop competitive and corporate advantages, and understand weaknesses and threats to sustaining advantage in the face of challenging threats. Different approaches including industrial organization, the resource-based view, dynamic capabilities, and game theory have helped academics and practitioners understand the dynamics of competition and develop recommendations on how organizations should redefine their competitive and corporate strategies, corporate communication included. However, drivers such as globalization, deregulation, or technological change, just to mention a few, are profoundly changing the competitive game. Scholars and practitioners agree that the fastest growing organizations in this new environment appear to have taken advantage of these structural changes to compete “differently” and innovate in their business models. What about the Douala Stock Exchange?
His Excellency Mr. Paul BIYA, President of the Republic, in ordering the creation of a financial market in Cameroon, endowed the financial system, which was until then composed of banks, financial establishments and microfinance insti¬tutions, with a modern tool to finance the economy. Thus by rationalizing the economic system and putting the country on course to become an emerging nation by 2035.
The ambitions of the Douala Stock Exchange (D.S.X) are:
– To establish the DSX as an attractive place for savers and to introduce the idea of Stock Market finance into the managerial culture of companies in Cameroon;
– To make the DSX an essential component of the economy of Cameroon ;
– To make a contribution to the growth and development of Cameroonian companies by allowing them to adopt and implement wider ambitions and achieve more quickly their objectives of development into international markets;
– To participate in the wider diffusion of a culture of transparency and sound corporate governance;
– To make a contribution to the dematerialization of financial assets;
– To make a contribution to increase awareness of Cameroon on international markets.

The Stock Exchange of Cameroon or the Stock Exchange or the Douala Stock Exchange or the DSX was created by, and is organized in accordance with the provisions of Law N° 99/015 of the 22nd December, 1999. The Stock Exchange of Cameroon shall be sole agent authorized to carry out the trade of stocks, shares, transferable securities and other investment products. The Stock Exchange of Cameroon shall be charged with organizing the trade of transferable securities and other investment products registered in any of its departments. To this effect, it shall take upon itself the exclusive rights to regulate:
• access to the market
• admission to quotation
• organisation of transactions and the markets
• suspension of negotiations
• recording and publication of negotiations
• conclusion of transactions

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KINGDOM call

Prosperity of Man body, soul and spirit, 2020

Challenges to prosperity
• an increasing population projected to reach 2 billion in 2050; ™
• extreme poverty which, although especially persistent in the rural areas, is shifting towards the urban areas where rural-urban migration increases the need for affordable food for poor people that no longer produce it themselves; ™
• Undernourishment is pervasive in the continent with malnutrition particularly diffuse among infants and children; 24 percent of the population suffer from chronic hunger; and ™
• Many countries on the continent have economies based on agriculture with, on average, more than 50 percent as value added to their GDP Despite having essentially agriculture-based economies, the agricultural trade balances are often negative; ™
• Climate change poses a significant threat to the continent with more droughts and floods and changes in ecosystems taking place. Building capacities in climate change prediction, promoting mitigation and adaptation technologies is already seen as a must for enhanced agricultural development;
• ™Poor governance and poor management of available water and land resources, which cause productivity to fall below full potential. Irrigation potential is largely untapped. Rainfed agriculture still prevails and is now being affected at various degrees by climate change; ™
• the continent suffers from limited access to electricity: 77 percent of households in sub-Saharan Africa are without access to electricity, and most rural households still rely on traditional fuels wood, dung and agricultural residues that are strongly affected by the climate variability; and ™
• Despite the enormous hydropower potential of about 1 750 TWh, and the opportunity to ensure energy security through hydropower generation, only 5 percent of the potential is currently tapped.
• Gaps in finance from banking institutions

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COVID-19 AND OIL PRICES

kelly mua kingsly , 2020

Oil prices have plummeted as the Coronavirus has intensified across much of Europe and North America. The Energy Information Agency (EIA) has revised down its global oil demand forecast, which suggests that major importers such as China as well as European countries will reduce demand for oil. The latter has followed the trend of industrial production, which has slowed as manufacturing of waxes, perfumes, dyes, shaving creams, shampoos and conditioners that rely on refined oil have been disrupted by the virus. As such, Brent and WTI both fell by 24.59% and 30% to $31.13 and $30 per barrel respectively on Monday, March 9th.  Not only has the virus halted manufacturing supply chains in China, it has exacerbated the global cyclical slowdown, with both Euro Area and German industrial production plummeting in recent months

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BREXIT AND CAMEROON-

BREXIT AND CEMAC(Cameroon), 2019

Trade relations between the EU and Africa are defined by the Cotonou Agreement of 2000, as well as a series of so-called Economic Partnership Agreements between the EU and the five African Regional Economic Communities (RECs), for instance the CEMAC in which Cameroon belongs. The agreements outline bilateral privileges for the exchange of goods and services.

Initially, Brexit would fundamentally change contractual trade agreements between Europe and Africa. Nevertheless, the British government will proceed pragmatically and uphold existing contracts within the framework of the Cotonou Agreement, as the UK’s trade deals with Africa are essentially the EU’s trade deals with Africa. As the UK exits the European Union, all of those deals will have to be renegotiated. It’s likely, though, that the UK will simply keep the same trade deals with its African partners for the foreseeable future. However, developmental cooperation will have to be restructured.

The EU is Africa’s most important donor in the area, and Britain – due to its colonial past – contributes much of its aid. The UK has pledged 0.7% of its Gross National Income (GNI) to development aid. Now, while it probably won’t go back on that promise, if the UK goes into recession and the UK GNI falls, that reduces the amount of money for aid in real terms. More than this, the UK was one of the biggest supporters of EU aid programs in Africa, both politically and financially. While the UK will most likely continue to honor its own aid commitments, a changing attitude to aid could evolve within a UK-less European Union. The same principle applies to the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). What about foreign direct investment (FDI)?
For 2014, the total FDI flows from the UK to African economies were only about 16% of total flows to the continent. In terms of the stock of FDI, a measure of the total value of investments in Africa, the UK’s portion was only 8% in 2014 (both estimates obtained from combining ONS and UNCTAD data). Because the UK mostly invests in mining, quarrying and financial services, and mostly in South Africa; sectors that are hardly the type to drive self-sustaining and job-creating growth on the continent

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"Impact of new discounts applicable to refinancing on banks and the development of the public securities market".

Prudential ratios are a set of monetary aggregates used to assess a bank’s cash position. They make it possible to ensure the solvency and liquidity of credit institutions. The aim is to protect the interests of depositors and ensure the stability of the banking system.  Our job will be to see the purpose of these haircuts before presenting their impact on banks and issuers.

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Impact of COVID 19 on supply chain management

Impact of COVID-19 on supply chain management , 2020

COVID-19 finally forces many companies, and entire industries, to rethink and transform their global supply chain model? It has exposed the vulnerability of many organizations especially those with heavy reliance on China and the west as a whole.
Africa remains a strong trading company with china, Europe and increasingly America. When essential items are scarce and time is of the essence, open and accountable procurement becomes an even more important safeguard. The immediate impact if the breakdown in SCM systems with legal, financial and many other direct or indirect consequences on co-contractors, vendors and players.

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Coronavirus and carbon transition for developing economies

coronavirus and carbon emission, 2020

The corona virus, (Covid-19) has spread to several continents and Italy has in recent days become Europe’s worst-affected country. Whilst the humanitarian costs leaves little to desire, the economic impact has halted manufacturing supply chains across china and the world, caused imports of crude oil to fall by 25% , global economic activity to slow and oil prices to hit 31-$33/bl. In the meantime, central banks have cut interest rates in an attempt to reduce the adverse effects of a slowing global economy but commodity exporters such as Nigeria, South Africa and Cameroon will likely bear the brunt of weaker demand. Rather than stimulate domestic economies via interest rate cuts, central banks should emphasise the need for targeted fiscal reforms that prioritise higher value-added products such as green technologies, consumer and non-consumer products, intermediate products and components for industrial machinery. Such an approach will increase the number of people employed in formal sectors, reduce the impact of the virus on long-term economic growth whilst improving the pass-through from monetary policy to economic activity and inflation.
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Le tresor public et la lutte contre la criminalite financiere

Le trésor public et la lutte contre la criminalité financière , 2018

Le trésor public et la lutte contre la criminalité financière Résumé La criminalité financière au Cameroun comme dans plusieurs pays est constituée de plusieurs types d’infractions ayant en commun le fait qu’elles portent atteinte à la vie économique du pays. Pour y faire face, les différents gouvernements ont dû adopter un système de lutte propre aux réalités nationales, tenant en compte les lapalissades nationales. La lutte contre la criminalité financière s’appuie sur une multitude de textes législatifs et réglementaires, mais aussi sur des organes précis. De plus, la particularité du système camerounais de lutte contre la criminalité financière est que, pour certaines infractions commises, l’influence du cadre juridique international influence le traitement des infractions. Cet article, aborde les différents politiques de lutte contre la criminalité financière au Cameroun. La première partie aborde les textes nationaux et internationaux contre ce fléau. La deuxième partie analyse le rôle des organismes indépendants et les organes judiciaires traditionnels, sans toutefois oublier le role d’Interpol.. Mots clés : Corruption, fraude, criminalité financière, Cameroun. INTRODUCTION Les questions de gouvernance au sein des Administrations publiques nationales et internationales du monde entier constituent des sujets de grand intérêt pour l’opinion publique, en raison notamment de ce que ces administrations ont la responsabilité de la gestion d’un patrimoine commun et l’obligation de déférer aux principes de transparence et de reddition de compte qui caractérisent les Etats modernes. Il convient d’ailleurs d’observer que ces questions de gouvernance qui ne sont pas propres au secteur public, existent bel et bien dans le secteur privé et parfois de façon plus accentuées, sans pour autant emporter le même écho au sein de la société. (Siewe et Baban, 2019:205) La corruption est l’un des principaux fléaux qui entrave le développement harmonieux de la société, en profitant à une minorité au détriment de la grande et large majorité sociétale. Au Cameroun, la corruption est réprimée par la loi N° 2016 /007 du 12 juillet 2016 portant code pénal. La convention des Nations Unies contre la corruption du 31 octobre 2003, dite convention de Merida, ratifiée par le Cameroun le 18 mai 2004, définie la corruption comme : soustraction, détournement ou usage illicite de bien par un agent public ; trafic d’influence ; abus de fonction ; enrichissement illicite ; blanchissement du produit du crime ; recel ; entrave au bon fonctionnement de la justice et l’inobservation des règles des marchés publics. Le rapport de la Commission nationale anti-corruption du Cameroun du 28 décembre 2018 épingle le Ministère en charge des Marchés publics comme l’administration la plus corrompue. Des mesures institutionnelles multiformes ont été prises par les autorités camerounaises pour lutter contre ce fléau, mais celui-ci continue de se répandre en se complexifiant, causant d’énormes préjudices à la société, en général et aux couches les plus vulnérables, en particulier. (Siewe et Baban, 2019:205) Les infractions financières portent atteinte à la fortune publique du Cameroun, et le pays a adopté plusieurs textes nationaux en matière de lutte contre la criminalité financière. Cependant, face à l’impact des infractions financières sur la société internationale, il a fallu
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Regional Intergration as a tool for Economic Trasformation (1)

Regional intergration as a tool for economic intergration , 2019

The market size is a key component of turnover in any business community. The more people we have in a market place, the higher our chances of selling our products. The liberation of our continent and country is a function of those we trade with however, it is common knowledge that our focus is on those with hard currency rather than those with an effective demand potential. Gains are not only measured in financial terms but the macroeconomic perspective is key in moving our continent to the next level. The most impactful approach would be to have a giant block regulated by one superstructure.The integration vision for an African Economic Community through five geographic regions was recommended by the Abuja Treaty (1991). To streamline the existing multiple blocs in these regions, the African Union identified eight Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in its rationalization drive. The integration vision seeks to attain collective autonomy and contribute to raising the living standards of the population through the expansion of African markets and increased trade between Africa and the world. According to the Bank Group’s Medium-Term Strategy (2008-2012) and Regional Integration Strategy (2009-2012), a Regional Integration Strategy Paper (RISP) will be prepared for the Centre region. Accordingly, the current RISP concerns Central Africa which comprises the ten ECCAS countries: Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic (CAR), Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Gabon, Equatorial Guinea (REG), Sao Tome and Principe (STP) and Chad. The Central Africa is mainly characterized by the Congo Basin (CB) which is home to the world’s second forest and water reserve – one of the lungs of the planet; and a considerable but largely untapped mineral and agricultural potential. This is the least integrated region of the continent. Economically, the Central Africa performed relatively well over the last ten years, with an average growth rate of about 6.2% during the 1999-2009 period, with 7.3% on average in the six oil-producing countries (Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Chad) and 4.7% in other countries. Economic growth in the region, which is above the African average (4.8%), was generally marked by higher exports of crude oil and mining products making it possible to finance non-oil activities. Accordingly, the region’s economy remains vulnerable to external shocks, mainly on account of its heavy dependence on oil production. From the political standpoint, the attainment of mutual understanding and concord between nations, in the spirit of the African Union, is the biggest challenge to regional integration in Central Africa. In addition, this region is made up of fragile states, landlocked countries, forested countries and sparsely populated MICs. This set-up highlights the relevance of the regional integration process in Central Africa. Weak basic infrastructure compared with the continents other regions is also one of the challenges of this region. Specifically, the inadequate interconnection of national transport networks between Central African countries is an obstacle to economic and physical integration and the development of countries in the region. Similarly, electricity and water supply difficulties impede the emergence of a dynamic and competitive private sector. Conversely, the region has advantages that distinguish it from the rest of the continent. Central Africa’s pivotal and strategic position makes it a potentially preferred transit zone between regions of the continent. The region abounds with huge highly valued oil, mineral and mining resources. Recently, proven oil reserves in the region are estimated at 31.3 billion barrels, representing 28% of the continents total reserves. Central Africa has a huge agriculture, forestry and hydroelectric power potential. Climatic conditions and the availability of quality arable land favour agricultural development. Finally, the region has the continent largest hydro-electric potential. Actually, the immense water network density accounts for 60% of Africa’ hydropower potential.
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THE GLOBAL STATE OF HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

Globally, health care has recently known undisputable challenges. Even the strongest nations have seen their supposedly strong health systems crush down. No health organisation has been left undisrupted with the coming of Covid-19. If even the mighty have fallen what becomes of the weak? African countries at independence were organized and financed by governments which provided facilities, personnel and other inputs. By the 1980s, however economic downturn and the embrace of international monetary fund loans with stringent conditionality meant that many governments had to cut public spending on infrastructure and services, including healthcare and education. Consequently, many African governments stopped subsidizing public services and began implementing various costs – recovery measures in public services. The cost recovery era witnessed the introduction of OOP (out-of-pocket) for healthcare services, public water supply and consumables in schools. Thus, since the 1980s and 1990s, OOP by individuals and households have accounted for a larger scale of healthcare expenditure in many African countries of sub-Saharan Africa (1). These payments popularly known as user-fees or the ‘cash and carry’ health system in Ghana are known for raising the cost of healthcare, thus making it unaffordable for a large number of the population. In many sub-Saharan countries, governments rank healthcare relatively low among development priorities (2). For this reason, insufficient resources are allocated to healthcare, including drugs; which is often financed OOP (3) Healthcare statistics in sub-Sahara Africa are generally poor. For example, although the region makes up only 11 per cent, of the world’s population; it accounts for é’ per cent of the global disease burden and commands less than 1 per cent of global expenditure (4). Although the WHP suggests thresholds of OOP for health as a guarantee of adequate financial protection is in the region of 15-20 per cent, residents of many African countries spend more (5). For example, OOP spending on health was between 27 – 37 per cent in Ghana in 2012 about 52 per cent in Kenya, 6405-70 per cent in Nigeria in the 1998 – 2008 period: while in South Africa, the government contributes about 42 per cent of all expenditures on health. The remaining 58 per cent is paid by private sources insurance premiums and OOP. The United Nations recommends minimum required budgetary allocation to health is 15 per cent, many African countries fall below this minimum in their budgetary allocations. In 2007 more than half of the 53 African countries spent less than $50 per person (as average) on health (6). Of the total expenditure, 30 per cent came from governments, 20 per cent from donors and 50 per cent from private sources of which 71 per cent was paid by patients themselves, the so-called out-of-pocket-payments. The dire picture of the healthcare system in the world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa described above, coupled with Africa’s status as a ‘low-income’ region where poverty is a major barrier to accessing healthcare and underscores the need to rethink the health system. To talk of healthcare systems, we must first consider the elements that make up this system. If the target is having a better health system then the individual elements making up the system must be reviewed. Knowing what it is to be what it has been and what it could be, will be a good step forward
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Impact des nouvelles decotes applicable au refinancement sur les banques et le developpement du marche des titres publics

Les ratios prudentiels sont un ensemble des agrégats monétaires permettant d’évaluer la situation de la trésorerie d’une banque. Ils permettent de s’assurer de la solvabilité et de la liquidité des établissements de crédit. L’objectif étant de protéger les intérêts des déposants et d’assurer la stabilité du système bancaire. Notre travail consistera à voir l’objectif de ces décotes avant de présenter leur impact sur les banques et les émetteurs.

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Gestion des risques financiers liés aux activités de l’Etat sur le marché des capitaux

La gestion de la trésorerie est l’activité consistant pour un Etat à assurer le désintéressement en temps voulu des créanciers et autres parties prenantes – fournisseurs de biens et services, bailleurs de fonds, personnel, propriétaires – par le recours à l’endettement lorsque nécessaire, au moindre coût possible pour un niveau de risques connus et acceptés.
Afin de mener à bien les politiques publiques et de garantir la continuité financière de l’Etat, cette dette peut être contractée par le biais d’émissions obligataires sur le marché des capitaux.
Toutefois, la mobilisation optimale des ressources sur le marché nécessite la prise en compte de la notion de risque susceptible de revêtir plusieurs formes et dont la survenance peut mettre en péril la viabilité financière de l’Etat. Cela suppose qu’avant de prendre une décision pour un risque, il faut au préalable faire une étude et une analyse approfondie permettant de déceler sa probabilité et l’impact qu’il pourrait avoir.

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Management of state risk with respect to the capital market

/ THEME: Management of financial risks related to the State’s activities in the capital market I. Context Cash management is the activity of a State ensuring the timely satisfaction of creditors and other interested parties-suppliers of goods and services, lenders, staff, and owners-through the use of debt when necessary, at the lowest possible cost for a level of known and accepted risks.

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LES ÉCONOMIES AFRICAINES ET L’ESSOR DES CRYPTO-MONNAIES

De nouvelles crypto-monnaies émergent quotidiennement, offrant des alternatives aux formes traditionnelles de paiement et permettant de nouveaux moyens d’échange tels que l’argentliquide. Ces devises couvrent Bitcoin, Litecoin et Etherium. En moins d’une décennie, le bitcoin est passé d’une curiosité obscure à un nom familier. Ces derniers temps, le bitcoin a augmenté – avec des hauts et des bas – de quelques cents par pièce à plus de 4 000 $. Entre-temps, des centaines d’autres crypto-monnaies – égalant bitcoin en valeur marchande – ont émergé (graphique 1, panneau de gauche). Bien que le bitcoin ou ses sœurs semblent peu susceptibles de remplacer les monnaies souveraines, ils ont démontré la viabilité de la blockchain sous-jacente ou de la technologie du grand livre distribué (DLT). Les investisseurs en capital-risque et les institutions financières investissent massivement dans des projets DLT qui cherchent à fournir de nouveaux services financierset à fournir les anciens plus efficacement. Les blogueurs, les banquiers centraux et les universitaires prédisent des implications transformatrices ou perturbatrices pour les paiements, les banques et le système financier en général.
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Pr K E L LY M U A K I N G S L E Y Financial Literacy and wealth creation

It is challenging to become rich by working for someone, wealth and riches come by changing our narrative and rhetoric to fit our strategic agenda for change . Financial freedom is about taking ownership of your finances as you build your wealth . Financial freedom means that you get to make life decisions without being overly stressed about the financial impact because you are prepared. You control your finances instead of being controlled by them. Imagine waking up every day without the financial burdens of this life. What would it look like to work at a job you love, instead of one that simply pays the bills? Or to not have to work at all. To live your life without economic limits. To retire early if you so choose. But what are the steps to reach this reality?

ABOUT KELLY KINGSLY

Kelly Mua Kingsly, Njongou 4508 Fort Totten Dr. NE Apt Washington, DC 20011 +237 942 28055 kellymua55@gmail.com CONNECT SOCIALLY